Why did the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) repeatedly refuse to unify with North Vietnam?

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Why did the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) repeatedly refuse to unify with North Vietnam? Was this against the wishes of the South Vietnamese?
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After 1954, Ngo Dinh Diem has not enough confidence to organize an election: certainly he will lose Ho Chi Minh.

Let’s go back to 1954: who’s Ngo Dinh Diem? a Catholic guy, a former officer of feudal empire, a guy who spent most of the time in a foreign country. And what is Catholic? It is the religion of invader (French). What is the former empire (Nguyen)? They were selling our country to French. And, btw, what did he do when Vietnamese fight against French for their freedom?

Look to Ho Chi Minh: at this time, he is not really a Communist, so non-Communist people don’t have a serious problem with him (even after 1954, many Southern people still admire Ho Chi Minh). He is the person who read the Declaration of Independence - whatever you can claim, it is the only official Declaration we have, and it gave the name of Vietnam to the world (before, just Tonkin, Indochina, etc. and no Vietnam). He is a leader of a war against French army, in which the first time a colony won a big Western country.

Well, which candidate will you choose?

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Because if the election happened, communist would win. But the reason here is not like South Vietnamese said. North Vietnam had more people, sure but the reason here is because Diem can not win against Ho Chi Minh if the election happened.

If you put two of them on the scale, you will see why.

Ho Chi Minh was a popular leader, even before 1945. His army, Vietminh was the most popular movement in all Indochina. Their cadets can reach even the farthest villages in Vietnam even where the French didn't bother to come.

Ho Chi Minh and his movements defeated French. Unless you working with French for money then you hate them, mostly poor farmers hate them, and farmers were 90% of Vietnamese population of that time. And farmers don't care about communism or capitalism, if you get rid of France then you got their support. North Vietnamese hate French more due to the long tradition of wars against China, the great famine in 1945, and the North is less abundant land than the South so their life is far harder than South Vietnamese.

Diem was unpopular, he didn't do much as he working with French. He is a Catholic and Diem's favoritism toward Catholic. Talk about Catholic, they are outsiders, they helped France with their conquest of Indochina, most well known is they helped France in Tokin campaign, so the hartred is quite deep. So his religion is also a minus. He won the election through rigged but he know this won't work twice.

Unlike North Vietnam where Ho Chi Minh and his party had total power and support from population. South Vietnam had more land than the North so they wouldn't need the government support. That make their life less harder but also they don't care much about who is in power. And in Indochina war, to win against Vietminh in the South led by Nguyen Binh, French supported to all sides in the South to pacify South Vietnam, namely Hoa Hao, Cao Dai. That make the South Vietnamese is more divided. But even all of that, Vietminh is still the most popular.

The true nature of South Vietnam government is a puppet government created by French to undermine the Vietminh, it call “Bao Dai solution”, it won't take long for people know it true face.

With all of that combine the chance Diem can win against Ho Chi Minh in fair election is laughable, can compare with someone believe Saigon was richer than Singapore in 1965. In fact US see how the Diem government without US support.


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The South Vietnamese were actually split on this. Many, especially the Buddhists and those living in the countryside, wanted to reunify with North Vietnam, but those in the major cities wanted to stay separate. But generally, most supported reunification, and in fact almost everybody knew that the leader of North Vietnam was much more popular than every leader of South Vietnam.

This however hit a major stumbling block when the USA began to back South Vietnamese rulers, who were anti-Buddhist and anti-Communist. This prevented any fruitful communication, as both sides refused to negotiate with the other side. In addition, the Americans ever let the South Vietnamese unite with a Communist country, nor would the Soviets allow the North Vietnamese to fall under the rule of a Capitalist government.

So despite both sides really wanting a peaceful reunification, they had to settle things with a war instead.

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The question is misleading in the sense that it portrays North Viet Nam in the right.

Both sides wanted unification, but the question was under which system: communism or democracy.

Never mind the criticism that South Viet Nam was not a democracy. Compared to North Viet Nam, South Viet Nam was democratic ENOUGH for the South Vietnamese to want to be separate from North Viet Nam.

So here is another question: Why did North Viet Nam repeatedly refuse to unify with South Viet Nam ?

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Before 1954, there was no South Vietnam overall. On those days, the communists had yet to establish a stronghold, no matter the Chinese communists established PRC at 1949 (Ho Chi Minh addressed he would rather eat French shits than sniff Chinese shits). Thus, it was clear that there was no divisions between North and South Vietnam, only Vietnamese from which region.

Those days the Republic of Vietnam DID NOT EXIST! Only State of Vietnam! The Vietnamese were still remembering the historic independent declaration read by Ho Chi Minh at 1945 (with the supports from OSS and the United States). Ho Chi Minh had never given up hope to ally with the U.S., since he hated Russia and China. This is what Chinese do understand but Russians will be shocked!

Ngo Dinh Diem, prior to 1954, was just still unknown in international stage. Where was Ngo before that? He was also a Catholic while Catholicism is the result of French colonization.

Clearly Vietnamese supported an unification. But then? Who did? Look on this guy:


Say hello to Chinese PM, Zhu Enlai.

Zhu Enlai planned carefully about a total division of Vietnam like how he did in Korea. China wanted Vietnam to be separated into two parts in fear of an reunification of Vietnam would exert more Vietnamese influence.

So to be fair, the question is wrong in both factor: not North Vietnam, not South Vietnam, but it was CHINA who refused to see Vietnamese unification.

This was why Ho Chi Minh hated China! And so neither wanted the division, and Vietnamese delegations from both parties refused it.

Sadly because the American politicians were not wise to realize this plan, they later prompted up into the country, pushing Ho into the hand of commies and thus, made China’s plan fruitful for a decade!

So? The question is actually wrong in all level. China wanted against reunification, not North or South Vietnam.

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The Americans set up a puppet' government in Saigon and controlled everything in this "country" - as its vice-president Nguyen Cao Ky - said. The US wanted to divide Vietnam to make South Vietnam a base. The Vietnamese people wanted to unify the country by election in 1956 under the Geneva Agreement. Because they were afraid that Ho Chi Minh would win the election with 80% of population , the US resisted the election, causing war to break out. The French and the Americans had one point in common before war broke out: that was the stupid arrogance, they had pay a heavy price for it.

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